How do Microwave works

If you are interested in knowing how does that magic happens, that food gets heated in an electric machine. So let’s see the scientific reason behind it. In this blog, we will study how does microwave works.

This discovery was revolutionary and purely accidental, a blend of adjectives we find irresistibly delightful. The first food item Spencer at that point purposely cooked with microwaves – and I doubt this comes as a shock – was popcorn. The second thing he cooked without resting it on fire, from a separation as if by sheer magic, was an egg, which exploded on one of the experimenters. That moment was historic.

Raytheon, the firm that had employed Spencer, immediately filed a patent for a gadget that would cook or recook food by enclosing it in and after that bombarding it with microwaves. The gadget, with positively no respect for imagination, was just called the microwave oven. In any case, how can one work? For what reason did the chocolate bar melt?


Heat between a source and a recipient can be transferred in three different ways: conduction, when the two are in direct contact, similar to when you touch a hot glass; convection, when the heat is exchanged by a medium, generally fluid, similar to when hot air contacts colder air; lastly, radiation, when the heat is exchanged by the means of an electromagnetic wave, which requires no medium to spread, for example, the warmth conferred by the sun’s light that travelled millions of miles through void(empty) space. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves, radiation is the means by which the heat in a microwave is transferred.

However, it is not yet clear how the heat is circulated throughout the food being subjected to the waves. Microwaves are amazingly proficient at exciting and vibrating water molecules, and since food is mostly water, the incredible motion of the particles makes intermolecular friction, which creates the heat to cook the food items. In spite of the fact that why the water molecule? Well, because it’s a magnificent dipole.

Why Microwaves Target Water Molecules

A water molecule is formed when two hydrogen atoms bond to form a single oxygen molecule. The molecule, however, is molded like an upside-down “Y”; the two positive hydrogen molecules are pressed together toward one side, while the highly negative oxygen atom sticks to the next. One end of the molecule, therefore, displays a positive charge, while the opposite end exhibits a negative charge: the molecule forms a dipole.

At the point when an electric field contacts a dipole, the dipole attempts to adjust itself to the field’s charge, yet microwaves are not just any electric field; they are a quickly exchanging one. As the field interchanges, so does the dipole’s alignment, or, in other words, the dipole rotates. The water molecule set in such energetic turn by the microwaves sets off other molecules in vigorous rotation. Soon, every water molecule is excited and rotating. The vibrational energy scattered raises the temperature of the food item.

Why Microwaves?

The energy of an electromagnetic wave increases with an expansion in its frequency, so for what reason don’t we utilize infrared or ultraviolet rays to prepare food more quickly and efficiently? Infrared or ultraviolet rays aren’t used because they are consumed by the food items surface before they reach the water underneath. Microwaves, however, can penetrate to greater depths, where the water lies. Heating the meat with infrared or ultraviolet makes it ‘look’ hot, however, the flesh underneath will stay uncooked. That being stated, prolonged infrared warming will heat the meat too, something that is evident in normal heating, when one cooks on a stove. In fact, many stoves are infrared-based.

At that point, there are radio waves – electromagnetic waves of even lower frequencies. For what reason don’t we use them? Wouldn’t they be, construing from the trend, significantly more penetrative? Radio waves were used to heat food even before microwaves! however, because most modern communication technologies came to be based on radio waves, proceeding to utilize them to heat food would have certainly caused electronic interference.

Finally, while microwave heating is the quickest and most effective approach to prepare food, not every food can be heated with equal ease. Clearly, food items suffused with moisture are easy to heat. Food things containing sugar or fat, require more effort. This is because that the dipole development of their molecules is less than the dipole development of water molecules.

And also, one must avoid microwaving any food thing in a metal container. This is because metals reflect electromagnetic waves is the working guideline of radar. If you feed a microwave a metal bowl, the majority of the microwave energy, as if a metallic ship, will be reflected by it.

Keep in mind that microwaves are built in a manner that enables no waves to escape them, so the reflected energy bounces off the walls and is re-reflected by the metal bowl. What results is the greenhouse effect: the energy accumulates and makes the temperature inside the oven achieve dangerous levels, which could in the long run reason the oven to explode in your face. which could eventually cause the oven to explode in your face. If the danger of this happening isn’t clear to you, maybe you should simply stick to microwave popcorn!


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